Uganda, the Pearl of Africa, has a biodiverse flora and fauna and is known for its splendor, natural wonders, and amazing people. Uganda has a wealth of unexploited natural resources. It showcases a varied collection of habitats, landscapes, and vegetation from open wooded savannah forest and acacia woodlands, tropical forest, riparian forests, montane forests, rocky outcrops, grasslands, marshes, sweeping valleys, craggy hills, bush thickets, and extensive wetlands—all these varied vegetation hosts abundant wildlife, primates, and birdlife.
Being close to the equator and its location on the great African plateau gives it a remarkable biological and physical flora and fauna. Uganda has a consistently tropical hot climate, and the temperatures are relatively uniform throughout the year. Temperatures are also affected by the wide variation in altitude across the country.
The presence of Lake Victoria provides moisture to the south, thus induces precipitation in the western shores. Without this lake, it would be dry and arid throughout the year. However, most regions receive between 1000mm to 2000mm of rainfall annually.
Geographically, Uganda is generally a flat plateau with an altitude of above 900m in most parts of the country with numerous small hills and valleys and extensive savanna plains. Vegetation in Uganda is exceptionally diverse, a result of the different microclimates of the country. Vegetation zones can be roughly classified according to the rainfall/ climatic zones;
Vegetation is heaviest in the south and typically becomes wooded savannah in central and northern Uganda. In the highlands southwest, however, cultivation is intensive even on the high mountain slopes. However, there are scattered patches of thick forest or elephant grass and mvuli trees, providing excellent timber.
The cooler western highlands contain a higher proportion of long grass and forest. In the drier northern region, short grasses appear, and there are areas of open woodland; thorn trees and Borassus palms also grow.
Savannah grasslands cover most of Uganda but vary in different regions depending on the altitude and temperatures. Southwest may be wooded, shrubby to the north, or dry to the northeast. Savannah habitat is dominated by grassland dotted with Borassus palms, woodland with forest patches.
The woody vegetation is dominated by acacia-dotted savanna species, Olea, and Boscia species. Forest savannah mosaic vegetation is scattered throughout the country in areas close to water bodies. The forest vegetation has high amounts of evapotranspiration, increasing the rainfall around the region. The forest vegetation lessens soil erosion, flooding and ensures that streams continue to flow in the dry season.
Uganda is in the cradle of mountains, which means mountain vegetation covers most of the countryside, like in the Rwenzori mountains and the Mount Elgon region. Budongo forest, in Murchison Falls National Park, is the largest natural mahogany forest with ironwood trees.
Hygrophilous vegetation thrives in highly humid areas, lining near the Great Lakes, such as papyrus swamp and narrow lush riparian woodland bands.
Lake Mburo is dominated by a grassy escarpment rising above a shoreline fringed with acacia forest and the closed canopy tropical Rubanga forest. On the park’s western margin, it is dominated by savanna with rocky ridges and forested gorges, while many lakes are lined with patches of papyrus swamps. On the north and east, grasslands between hills seeping through expanses of wetland into the lake. While on the eastern margin, you will find rock kopjes.
Bwindi Impenetrable Forest’s vegetation is thick, with its many shades of green, making it rightfully deserve the title Impenetrable. The impenetrable forest is tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests and is biologically rich and is essential for the conservation of the Afromontane fauna, especially species endemic to the western rift valley’s mountains.
Bwindi Impenetrable Forest’s topography is very rugged, with narrow valleys intersected by rivers and steep hills. The park has more than 220 tree species, 1,000 flowering plant species, and more than 100 fern species, including the threatened brown mahogany and Brazzeia long pedicellate.
Queen Elizabeth National Park has a massive variety of habitats, including the savanna grassland, beautiful crater lakes, swamps, tropical rainforest. However, it has five vegetation levels in the different sectors; bushy grassland, Acacia woodland, Lakeshore or wetland vegetation, and forest grassland.
The vegetation is a variety consisting of mostly thickets of small trees, including acacias, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, and evergreens. The park’s grasslands harbor wildlife, forest grassland harbors primates. Kabatoro gate has a chunky ground cover with dense vegetation dominated by candelabra thorn that makes game viewing a challenge.
The open savannah plains are on the adjacent stunning Lake George’s western shores, just near to the area where the Kazinga Channel confluences with this lake. Fringes of Vossia cuspidata with shrubs such as Aeschynomene have developed at lake shores.
Kidepo National Park is situated in the dry Karamoja region in northwest Uganda, with great savanna landscapes and rising mountains in the background.
KVNP’s vegetation contains semi-arid plains interspersed with hills, rocky outcrops, and mountain ranges. A third of the park lies within the Narus Valley in the south and west, and the other two-thirds occupy the Kidepo valley in the east and northeast. Life in the park is said to revolve around these two seasonal rivers. The Narus Valley has water for about six months a year and has well-developed Acacia gerrardii woodland. The Kidepo valley only contains water in the wettest seasons. Besides the Acacia gerrardii woodland, the park also has extensive grasslands, tree and shrub-steppe, and bushland. Overall the vegetation of KVNP can best be described as open tree Savannah that varies much in structure and composition.
This evergreen rain forest park is located near the Fort Portal in the Western part of Uganda, east of the Rwenzori Mountains. Some endangered timber species of trees include Cordial millennia, Entandrophragma Angolans, and Lovoa swynnertonnii. The forest understory is dominated by shade-tolerant shrubs and herbs, which include Palisota schweinfurthii and Pollia condensata, in addition to ferns and broad leaf grasses.
The fairly flat park contains the tropical lowland forest, a hot spring area, and is home to a variety of wildlife and birds.
The area of Semuliki National Park is a distinct ecosystem within the larger Albertine Rift ecosystem. The park is located at the junction of several climatic and ecological zones, and as a result, has a high diversity of plant and animal species and many microhabitats. Most of the plant and animal species in the park are also found in the Congo basin forests, with many of these species reaching the eastern limit of their range in Semuliki National Park. The vegetation of the park is predominantly medium altitude moist evergreen to a semi-deciduous forest. The dominant plant species in the forest is the Uganda ironwood (Cynometra alexandri). There are also three species of a more evergreen nature and swamp forest communities.
The park has more than 400 bird species, including the lyre-tailed honeyguide. 216 of these species (66 percent of the country’s total bird species) are true forest birds, including the rare Oberländer’s ground thrush (Geokichla oberlaenderi), Sassi’s olive greenbul (Phyllastrephus lorenzi), and nine hornbill species. The park provides habitat for over 60 mammal species, including African buffalo, leopard, hippopotamus, mona monkey, water chevrotain, bush babies, African civet, African elephant, and the Pygmy scaly-tailed flying squirrel (Idiurus zenkeri). Nine duiker species are found in the park, including the bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis). The park has eight primate species and almost 460 butterfly species, according to Wikipedia.
This snow-capped mountain range includes an astonishing range of landscapes, from the bizarre afro-alpine moorland to the thick tropical rainforest on the lower slopes and, lastly, the glaciers at the highest altitudes.
Montane woodland is an open forest with dense ground cover. The bamboo zone, found between 1,800m and 3,300m, covers about 60% of the park and is the favored habitat of larger mammals. The main montane forest tree species grow up to 3,200m and are used for medicines. Ground cover is composed of grasses, mosses, lichen, and liverwort.
The subalpine zone is divided into two, the moorland zone and the Afromontane belt. Neither zone has trees; vegetation consists of ground plants capable of enduring extreme conditions thus mammals are rare.
The highest altitudes are home to the giant senecio and lobelia. At these altitudes of over 3,000m there is less rainfall as the area is above regular cloud level.
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The rare germs of trees, shrubs and grasses of Uganda have uses ranging from cultural, construction and industrial.
Other plant species include;
Nature lovers who visit Uganda love the wide variety of plant life within its reserves. From mvuli trees to elephant grass of the plateau to dry thorn scrubs, acacia trees, and euphorbia shrubs of the northeast, papyrus in swamps surround many of the country’s lakes.
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